Esquema  de  formação  das  palavras  nas  linguagens  de  especialidade

 

tipologia                                                   alemão                               português

1.   motivação:

(palavra primitiva)                                        Kopf  (Zylinder, Motor)              cabeça

                                                                       Arm (Hebel)                             braço

                                                                       F(Stütze, Ständer)                

                                                                       Mutter (Schraube)                    porca

2.   composição:

      a. justaposição

  • Substantivo+Substantivo               Lichtjahr                                 ano-luz

                                                           Seepferd                                cavalo-marinho

                                                                       Laserstrahl                             raio laser

                                                                       Verursacherprinzip                causador-pagador

                                                                       Taubstummheit                     surdo-mudez

·       Substantivo+Nome                           Dieselmotor                           motor Diesel

                                                                   McPherson-Federbein         suspensão McPherson

  • Subst.+Prepos.+ Subst.                     -                                         porta à prova de incêndios                                                                                                           (Feuerschutztür)

                                                                       -                                              forja a frio                                                                                                                                        (Kaltschmieden)

  • Subst.+Prepos.+Verbo                      -                                              máquina de lavar

                                                           -                                              graxa de soldar

                                                                                                                      (Lötfett)

  • Verbo+Substantivo                          Isolierband                            pára-brisas                                                                                                                           (Windschutzscheibe)
  • Adjetivo+Substantivo                      Halbbruder, -schwester        meio-irmão, meia-irmã

                                                           Viertelliter                             meio-dia, meia-noite

  • Substantivo+adjetivo                      Blauhelm                               capacete azul
  • Adjetivo+Adjetivo                            hellgrün                                 verde-claro

                                                           taubstumm                            surdo-mudo

  • Advérbio+Verbo                                wohltun (Medizin)                   bem-fazer (Gutes tun)
  • Advérbio+Adjetivo                           wohlklingend                         bem-sonante
  • Preposição+Substantivo                 Nachkriegszeit                       pós-guerra

                                                                          Überfischung                         sobrepesca

  • Preposição+Verbo                            unterschätzen                       subestimar

      B. aglutinação                                                

                                                                       -                                              planalto (plano+alto)

                                                                       -                                              aguardente (água+ardente)

 3.   Derivação (prefixo + morfema livre/radical + sufixo):

·       sufixo                                                 Gieß/en/er/ei                        fund/ir/idor/ição

·       prefixo                                                vorspannen (Beton)                pré-esforçar (PT)

                                                                                                                      protender (BR)           

·       prefixo+sufixo (parassíntese)            unpässlich                              indisposto

                                                            andicken (Culin.)                     engrossar

·       infixo+sufixo                                     Inhalt/s/verzeichnis              cafe/z/al, cafe/z/inho

                                                                                                           cafe/t/eira

                                                                                                                                      (consoante de ligação)

                                                            Samb/a/drom                        samb/ó/dromo

                                                            Port/u/enser                          port/u/ense

                                                                                                           (vogal de ligação)

4.     Substantivação / nominalização (conversão):

                                                                 das Kaltwalzen                      o forjar a frio

(adj. à subst.)                                                  Fungizid                                 fungicida

(particípio do presenteà gerúndioà adjetivoàsubstantivo)                                  anabolizante

5.      Empréstimo/estrangeirismo (neologismo):                               

                                                                       Software                                software

                                                                       Analyse                                  análise               (aportu-

haute couture                                               Haute Couture                      alta-costura          guesa-

Minivan, MPV                                                Minivan                                  minivã f. (BR)          mento)

Shampoo                                                       Shampoo                                champô (PT), xampu (BR)

download / delete                                        downloaden                          deletar (BR)

to post                                                            posten                                    postar

SMS                                                                simsen

Blog                                                                bloggen

6.     Abreviação:            

  • acrónimo                

(Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)  Laser                                        laser

                                                                 Radar                                     radar

                                                                       NATO                                      NATO /OTAN

                                                                       AIDS                                        SIDA

  • sigla                                                              

                                                           LKW                                        TSF (telegrafia sem fio)

                                                           CDU                                        CDU (PT)

  • redução

                                                           Foto                                        foto (fotografia)

                                                           Metro                                     metro (PT) / metrô (BR)

                                                                                                     (comboio/trem metropolitano)

7.     epónimo (termo que se baseia no nome duma personalidade): 

                                                                       Diesel                                     diesel m. (Auto, Motor)

                                                                       Zepellin (Luftschiff)                  gilete f. (Rasierapparat)

8.     metónimo (um nome/uma designação no lugar de outro fenómeno associado):

                                                                       Brüssel                                   Planalto

                                                                       (Zentrale der EU)                        (palácio da Presidência do BR)

                                                                                         Glas: ein Glas trinken            copo: tomar um copo

                                                                                         (Getränk)                                           (bebida)

                                                                       Tempo n.                                portland m

                                                                                         (Papiertaschentuch)                        (Zement - cimento)